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Physiological Response of Bligon Buck to Transportation:
Relation to Level of Thyroid Hormone
Hera Maheshwari 3), Luthfiralda Sjahfirdi 4)
1) Department of Physiology, 2) Department of Reproductive Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University Jl. Fauna No.2 , Karang Malang, Yogyakarta. Email: [email protected], Phone: 08156851163 3)Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga, Bogor 4) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia ABSTRACT
Transportated animals may subject to a variety of physical stimuli including metabolism, crowding, noise, handling, isolation, agitation, and extreme temperature .The aim of this study was to determine the changes of serum T and T concentration, during animals transportation. Six adult Bligon buck with body weight ranging from 26-30 Kg were used in this study. Two weeks prior to the experiment, the animals were given anthelmintic Albendazole to eliminate egg worm. All animals were fed standard diet in their pen at 10% of their body weight per head daily and commercial concentrate also given everyday. Fresh water was provided ad libitum. All animals were transported around village for 16 hours starting from 18.00 pm until 10.00 am in open small truck (3 x 2 m); eye contact each others would be possible. Blood samples were withdrawn from jugular vein using vacutainer tubes containing heparin into 1.5 mL glass tubes, then centrifuged at 500 g for 15 minutes. Plasma was collected to be stored at –20° C. The blood were collected every 4 hours from 8 hours before transportation ( at 10.00 am, 14.00 pm and 18.00 pm) until the time of arriving after transportation at 10.00 am. Plasma was harvested and stored at –20° C until T and T concentrations were measured using ELISA method (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) product DRG, Germany. The result showed that transportation of Bligon bucks for 16 hours have an affect on level of T only (P<0.05) and not for T concentration (P>0.05) due to physical stimuli such as crowding, heat stress, noise, handling would be discarded so that the metabolic process was stable. During transportation, decreasing of T levels indicated conversion of T to T to form active hormone.
Key words: Bligon bucks, transportation, Triiodothyronine (T ), Thyroxine (T ) INTRODUCTION
as a stressful event. Although tremendous number of study on the effects of handling and Bligon goat is one of very popular livestock transportation of cattle, pigs and poultry have been done, little work has been carried out to assess the effect of transportation of local goat markets or other cities for slaughtering has been running almost everyday. The length of time of Triiodothyronin (T ) and Thyroxine (T ).
transportation is vary starting from 2 until 16 Thyroid hormones, T and T , were reported hours. Transported animals may be exposed to to respond to variety of stressors in different a variety of physical and psychological stimuli fashions (Garriga et al. 2006 and Hangalapura including crowding, noise, handling, isolation et al. 2004). In cattle, the stress of transportation and extreme temperatures (Al-Kindi et al. 2005).
has been shown to cause lower carcass yields Transportation of animal is generally recognized and dark cutters. Higher plasma levels of T in Suffolk ewes were shown to be positively related centrifuged at 500 g for 15 minutes. Plasma was to larger body size and enhanced growth potential collected and stored at –20° C until T and T (Williams et al., 2004), whereas the decline in concentrations were measured using commercial serum T levels induced by feed restriction was ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) greater in crossbreed ewes than in native Indian collected every 4 hours from – 8 hours before transportation induce an increase of activity of transportation (at 10.00 am, 14.00 pm and 18.00 the hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid axis, together with peripheral tissue request (Fazio et al. 2005). T stimulates mRNA transcription ELISA for plasma hormone
resulting in protein synthesis and anabolic concentration: The Triiodothyronine and
effects. Other effects are in the form of increased Thyroxine kit is a solid phase enzyme–linked temperature, behavioral, activity, weight loss, immunosorbent assay based on the principle of competitive binding. The microtitter wells are The aim of this study was to determine the change of thyroid hormone namely T and T in competes with a T and T -horseradish peroxidase Bligon goat during long transportation (16 hours).
conjugate for binding to the coated antibody. After incubation, the unbound conjugate was washed proposed as sensitive indices of physiological off. The amount of bound peroxidase conjugate stress response of animals encountering long- is inversely proportional to the concentration of term welfare problems such as handling and substrate and stop solution, the intensity of color would be inversely to concentration of hormone.
Concentrations of T and T were determined in MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Statistical analysis: The differences in
Animals: Six adult bligon bucks ranging
level of T and T were contrasted using ANOVA in body weight 26-30 Kg were used in this study.
Two weeks prior to the experiment, the animals had been given anthelmintic Albendazole to RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
standard diet in their pen at 10% of their body concentrate also given everyday. Fresh water in Table 1 and Figure 1. Concentration of T3 tended to lower in 4 hours after transportation, Treatment: All animals were transported
but no significant differences were found before around village for 16 hours starting from 18.00 and after transportation (P>0.05). Before loading, pm until 10.00 am in open small truck (3 x 2 level of T was normal then got to increase at night and early in the next morning until the possible. Blood samples were withdrawn from jugular vein using vacutainer tubes containing heparin was transferred into 1.5 mL glass, then Table 1. Average plasma levels of T and T before and after transportation Figure1. Changes of plasma T3 and T4 activity in Bligon bucks during transportation. Values are express as average ± SD. Minus symbol (-) represent before loading and 0 just loading.
normal metabolism status so that concentration of T3 was stable. Sarmin et al. . 2009 (in press) hormone which derivates from the amino acid tyrosine. T3 stimulates mRNA transcription, transported for 16 hours , level of cortisol resulting in protein synthesis and anabolic increased 4 hours post-transportation then effects. Also, it stimulates Na+, K+-ATPase at the cell membrane, thus increasing the oxygen adaptation. Even statistically there were no significant differences observed, cortisol became hormone T3 come from the thyroid, but in adult higher as soon as the subjects arrived at home.
sheep at least 50% of serum T3 and 97% of serum Ingram et al. ( 2002); Toscano and Friend,
rT3 derive from monodeiodination of T4 in (2001) reported that orientation during transport peripheral tissues (Fisher et al., 1972; Chopra had no effect on stress levels, but transport is stressful and orientation affects balance during Plasma total T3 concentrations significantly transport (3) Different from previous studies, in correlated with energy and nutrition balance.
this experiment, the small truck was opened and The overall effects are to increase the basal loaded with 6 animals only so physical stimuli metabolic rate, to make more glucose available such as crowding would be discarded. Heat to cells, to stimulate protein synthesis, to stress, noise would also be discharded because increase lipid metabolism and to stimulate the transportation was held from evening to the cardiac and neural functions (Capen and Martin, next morning. Todini et al. (2007) reported that 1989 cit Todini, 2007). In the current experiment, many factors transportation animals may be concentration of T3 was not significantly different exposed to a variety of physical stimuli including between before and after transportation (P>0.05).
crowding and high stocking density (Cockram There are many possibilities for such a result: et al. 2004), noise, handling, isolation, agitation, 1) even the animals were transported for 16 metabolic and extreme temperature. It has been hours, they still had positive energy balanced so demonstrated that excessively high stocking that their basal metabolism rate was still stable.
density during transportation leads to increased Riis and Madsen, (1985); Todini (2007) reported injury and stress (Tarrant, 1990; Cockram et that circulating thyroid can be considered as al., 1996). The initial period of transportation is indicators of metabolic and nutritional status of the most stressful time for animals (Broom et al., 1996). Driver behavior and road quality are transportation was not long enough to make also factors affecting sheep (Cockram et al., 2004) severe stress. Thus, the body could compensate and cattle (Fazio et al. 2005) during for such unsevere stress by regulating their Thyroxine
T4 can be deiodinated to form the biologically active hormone T3 by a 5’-deiodinase enzyme and to the inactive reverse T3 (rT3) (Leonard and O, Plude J, Al-Maani, Bakheit CS. 2005.
Koehrle 2000; Hernandez and Germain, 2003).
Physiological Response of Two Ages Groups metabolic hormone, revealed any significant Transportation in Relation to Circulating changes in treatment group before and after Levels of Gonadotropins, Cortisol, Thyroid transportation (P<0.05) (Figure 1). Table 1 showed that increased of T would be matched Chemistry. J Anim Vet Adv 4(8): 737-741 by decreased of T levels. Four hours after the Altiner A. 2006. Study of Serum of Growth course of transportation, , concentration of T Hormone, 3,5,3’- triiodothyronin, Thyroxine, was stable, whereas levels of T decreased. In Total Protein and Fatty Acids Levels During the same time, cortisol which can be considered Parturition and Early Lactation in Ewes.
as indicator of stress increased (Sarmin, 2009 Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 50, 85-87, 2006 in press). The finding of increased T and Broom DM. 2003. Transport stress in cattle and peripheral T to T conversion to form active ethological and other indicators. German Vet dominated this situation. Cortisol and T are very Cockram MS. 2004. A review of behavioral and important in increasing the metabolic process.
physiological responses of sheep to stressor to identify potential behavioral signs of demand became higher, cortisol dominated the situation so that conversion of T to T was Cockram, MS, Baxter EM, Smith LA, Bell S, decreased Christiansen et al (2007) illustrated Howard CM, Prescott RJ, and. Mitchell MA.
the similar phenomenon in human, increased 2004. Effect of driver behaviour, driving in T and decreased in T levels suggest that events and road type on the stability and lack of cortisol may stimulate peripheral resting behaviour of sheep in transit. Anim conversion of T to T to form active hormone.
Chopra IJ, Sack J, Fisher DA 1975. 3,30,50- Triiodothyronine (Reverse T3) and 3,3,50- CONCLUSION
sheep: studies on metabolic clearance rates, Transportation of Bligon bucks for 16 hours affected level of the T only and not for T thyroidal content relative o thyroxine.
concentration due to physical stimuli such as Endocrinology 97, 1080–1088.
crowding, heat stress, noise, would be discarded.
Christiansen JJ, Christian B, Djurhuus, Claus During transportation, decreasing of T levels H. Gravholt, Per Iversen, Christiansen JS, indicated conversion of T to T to form active Schmitz O, Jørgen W, Lunde JO, Jørgensen hormone. For accurate assessment of an animal physiological aspect must be measured for determination of discomfort experiencing by the Withdrawal in Adrenocortical Failure. J of Clin. Endocrinol Metabl 92, No. 9 3553-3559 Fazio E, Medica P, Alberghina P, Cavaleri S, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Limousin Cattle: Influence of Body Weight 2008 of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Decrease. Vet Research Com 29 (8): 713- University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Special thanks go to our students for kindly helping in Fisher DA, Chopra IJ, Dussault JH 1972.
Naqvi SMK, Rai AK 1991. Influence of dietary triiodothyronine in sheep. Endocrinology 91, responses, rectal temperature, some blood Garriga C, Hunter RR, Amat C,. Planas JM,.
hormones. Indian J Anim Sci 61, 1126– increases apical glucose transport in the chicken jejunum, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290 R195–R201.
relation to pregnancy, lactation and energy balance in goats. J of Endocrinol.: 107: 421- duration of cold stress on plasma adrenal Tarrant PV. 1990. Transportation of cattle by road. Appl Anim Behav Sci 28: 153-170 selected for antibody responses, Poult Sci Todini L. 2007. Thyroid hormones in small 83 1644–1649
environmental and nutritional factors. hormone deiodinases: physiology and clinical disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr 15:416–420 Toscano MJ, Friend TH. 2001. A note on the Ingram JR, Cook CJ, Harris PJ. 2002. The effect effects of forward and rear-facing orientation on the movement of horses during transport.
temperatures and heart rate of sheep. Anim Williams CC, Calmes KJ, Fernandez JM, Stanley Leonard JL, Koehrle J. 2000 Intracellular pathways of iodothyronine metabolism. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds. The thyroid.
metabolism and insulin sensitivity in Gulf Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Coast native and Suffolk ewes during late gestation and early lactation. Small

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