a. Course Content/Description:
This course introduces students to the basic concepts and principles of biotechnology, gives a brief study of microbiology, and application of microorganisms in technology for processes such as, fermentation of wine and vinegar, use of yeast cells in baking (bread), beer, yogurt etc. Students will receive training in the preparation and presentation of industrial catalysts, and in the industrial applications of microorganisms and biocatalysts. Specialist lectures (some of which may be provided by outside lecturers) will be given in biotransformation processes. Under kinetics of biological systems, the course focuses on the kinetics of enzymes catalyzed reactions, derivation and application of the michaelis-Menten equation to study biochemical reactions. A brief but balanced discussion of methods for cultivation of microorganisms is covered. Specialty Bioproducts for Agricultural, Food and Pharmaceutical Industries are discussed as well.
b. Course Objectives
The course is intended (i) To introduce to students the basic concepts and principles of Biotechnology (ii) Enable students to understand the five eras of development of Biotechnology (iii) The course is designed to impart the knowledge of industrial bioprocesses, industrial production of primary metabolites, secondary metabolite using living cells. (iv) Train students to apply principles of biotechnology in brewing and fermentation, genetic engineering, production of antibodies from microbes, manufacture of vaccines, sewage treatment etc.
c. Detailed Course Outline
i) Characteristics of biological materials
-Basic concepts -Biological diversity -Classification of microorganisms -Viruses
ii) Isolation, preservation of Microorganisms (1 week of lectures)
Isolation, preservation and improvement of Industrial Micro- Organisms for over production of Primary and Secondary metabolites,
iii) Directing the Chemical activities of microorganism
-Selectivity and specificity of microorganisms -Factors affecting enzyme activity
iv) Kinetics of biological systems lectures) -Basic enzyme substrate reaction
-Derivation and application of the Michaelis-Menten Equation (A practical exercise will be carried to determine the constants Km(Michaelis-Menten Constant) and Vmax (The maximum initial reaction rate), iii) Introduction to Industrial Bioprocesses lectures)
A historical overview of Industrial fermentation processes and products. Role of a bioprocess engineer in the Biotechnology Industry; Outline of the various unit operations involved in an integrated bioprocess; Process Flow-Sheeting; a brief survey of organisms, processes, products and market economics relating to modern industrial biotechnology. iv) Production of Primary Metabolites lectures)
A brief outline of processes for the production of some commercially important Organic acids (e.g. citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, gluconic acid,); Amino acids (Glutamic acid, lysine, aspartic acid & Phenylalanine); and Alcohols (ethanol, 2,3- butanediol). v) Secondary Metabolites lectures)
Study of production processes for various classes of low molecular weight secondary metabolites: Antibiotics-beta-lactams (Penicillins), amino-glycosides (streptomycin), macrolids (erythromycin), quinines, and aromatics. Vitamin (B12) and Steroids, dual or multiple fermentation. VI) Production of Enzymes and other Bioproducts (2 weeks of lectures)
Production of industrial enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipases, cellulases etc., Production of biopesticides, biofertilisers, biopreservatives (Nisin), cheese, biopolymers (xanthan gum, PHB etc.,), single cell protein. vii) Recombinant Proteins lectures)
Production of recombinant proteins (Insulin, Interleukin) having therapeutic and diagnostic applications; production of vaccines. Stoichiometry of microbial growth and product formation. Strain improvement through physical and chemical mutation, molecular tools, protoplast fusion. viii) Specialty Bioproducts for Agricultural, Food and Pharmaceutical Industries: (2 weeks of lectures)
Natural Biopreservatives (Nisin), and Biopolymers (Xanthan Gum and PHB); Single Cell Protein, Interferon, vaccines, phages in human health care. Production of synthetic Penicillins and Cephalosporin; Racemically-pure Drug Intermediates:
Steroid Bioconversions; High -Fructose Corn syrup; Bioconversion of Vegetable Oils; Production of monoclonal antibodies. Products of plant and animal cell culture.
a. Mode of delivery: Lectures, assignments, tests. Assessment: Assignments, test (40%), and Examination (60%). Lecturer: Mr. Edward Mubiru
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