Microsoft word - atena 2007.doc

Radulescu Irina Gabriela
University Petroleum-Gas Ploiesti, Romania
China’s pursuit of regional and national security and great power status is both legitimate, given that there are no meaningful WTO rules prohibiting this, and beneficial to the region, considering East Asia’s troublesome geopolitical layout. However, China should be mindful of the importance of the multilateral trading system in achieving its goal. As a top trading power, China also has the responsibility to push multilateral trade liberalization rather than being obsessed with regionalism. On the other hand, it shall be realized that the quest for regional trade arrangements demonstrates many weaknesses of the WTO-led multilateral trading system. Regional movements for free trade, as currently pursued by China, shall be allowed and even encouraged to the extent that they do not create trade diversion and divergent rules from the multilateral trade system. Keywords: Regional Trade Agreements, Economic Integration, Bilateral
JEL Classification: F15, F53, F55
1. Introduction
Societies and economies around the world are becoming more integrated. Integration is the result of reduced costs of transport, lower trade barriers, faster communication of ideas, rising capital flows and intensifying pressure for migration. Integration - or "globalisation" has generated anxieties about rising inequality, shifting power, and culture uniformity. Rather than a truly global economy, the recent trends have been towards a regionalised one. The effect of regionalism on the world trading system as a whole has been the subject of extensive recent debate. There are a few examples of long-established regional groupings that have become stronger over time - notably the 15-member European Union and the 9-member Association of South-east Asian Nations. But many of those established over the last three decades have been short-lived or have retained mainly symbolic political significance. From the late 1980s, however, there has been a growing commitment to regionalism, for a number of reasons1. Regionalism is a very much contested term and includes interactive activities which could have political coordination, like the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) or global integration like European Union. There are at least • economic integration de facto (at regional and level scale) and the processes de jure of the institutional regionalism • the emergence of vertical level of authority between the state and the global order (supranational regionalism) and between state and local level • the emergence of horizontal authority starting with the existent territorial 1 Irina Gabriela Rădulescu – “Different faces of globalization and regionalization”, 5th Global Conference on Business&Economics, Cambridge University, July 2006 By Stephen Browne, there are three different forms of economic cooperation – protected regionalism, open regionalism, and micro regionalism – which cover the most important manifestations at the regional level. All forms of regionalism assume that some measure of cross-border cooperation is a superior alternative to purely country-based economic systems. The forms differ in several important ways, including the extent to which regional arrangements are dependent on government initiative. For governments that have decided to open the economy the practical issue is how to pursue trade liberalization. Hoekman (2005) has observed four different models of trade policy reform: economy-wide trade liberalization, protection with offsetting policies for exporters, protection with export processing zones, regional integration2. Trade is one of the manifestations of globalization, with its positive effects but also its downsides. The sole work of market forces will not be enough to spread the benefits of globalization to all and that we have to develop instruments to harness globalization, ensuring that both developed and developing countries benefit alike from it and that those in our societies who suffer from the transformations that globalization bring about are adequately taken care of. Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) are a major feature of today’s multilateral trading system. The number of preferential agreements as well as the world share of preferential trade has been steadily increasing over the last years. Many WTO Members use the RTAs as trade policy instruments and as complementary to MFN. The promotion of free trade at a preferential level may help developing countries to implement domestic reforms and open up to competitive market Pascal Lamy considers that there are several reasons for the attractiveness of bilateral agreements as compared to multilateral negotiations3: 2 Bernard Hoekman – “Designing North-South Trade Agreements to Promote Economic Development”, World Bank and CEPR, June 2005 3 Pascal Lamy – “Regional agreements: the “pepper” in the multilateral “curry””, Speeches Bangalore, India, 2007 • preferential trade agreements seem quicker to conclude and they are very attractive to both politicians and business communities who are looking for • they can enter into new territories because of similarities in interests and • many of the recent FTAs contain political or geopolitical considerations. For developing countries negotiating with more powerful developed countries, there is usually the expectation of exclusive preferential benefits, as well as expectations of development assistance and other Fiorentino and Crawford (2005) describe four main RTA related trends4: • several countries are making RTAs the centrepiece of their commercial • RTAs are more complex by establishing new trade regimes; • preferential agreements between developed and developing countries are • RTAs become more and more consolidated and expanded. The proliferation of RTAs during the last years was explosive. Some of them are intended to be free trade areas and the others want to become customs unions. The most common category is the free trade agreement (FTA) (see figure no. 1). 4 Roberto V. Fiorentino, Jo-Ann Crawford – “The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements”, Discussion Paper no. 8, World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005 Figure no. 1 RTAs in force by type of agreement, 2005 Source: Roberto V. Fiorentino, Jo-Ann Crawford (2005) - The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements, Discussion Paper no. 8, World Trade The shaping of RTAs around the world reflects both economic and non-economic motivations. RTAs can represent the base of larger economic and political efforts to increase regional cooperation. They can also stimulate inward foreign direct investment (Kimura and Ando, 2005) and they put the left-out countries at a A regional agreement before free trade leads to a greater expansion in world output that immediate free trade because it creates a strategic incentive for member countries to increase exports to each other’s market. Countries that are pioneering members of free trade agreements get most of the benefits, if sunk costs to expand trade and investment are first realized within their borders. Comparing the welfare associated with free trade achieved via regionalism to that of free trade achieved via multilateral negotiation, it can be observed that the 5 Patrizia Tumbarello – “Are Regional Trade Agreements in Asia Stumbling or Building Blocks? Implications for the Mekong-3 Countries”, IMF Working Paper WP/07/53, March 2007 primary members of expanding trading blocs attain a higher level of welfare from the regionalism path, while late entrants fall to a lower level of welfare6. For the last four decades, trade has been the engine of economic growth for most of East Asia. In the 1960s Japan emerged as the region’s first major exporter, and it was followed in the 1970s by a second generation of economies (Hong Kong (China), the Republic of Korea, Taiwan (China), Singapore), in the 1980s by a third generation (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand), and in the 1990s by a fourth generation (China, Vietnam). While unilateral liberalizations by individual countries helped initiate export-led development in the region, the increasing economic integration of East Asia has been an important factor in sustaining the region’s growth. In East Asia, which had been characterized by a dearth of RTAs, negotiating RTAs has now become a part of everyday life. The region’s policy stance has shifted from favoring multilateralism to regionalism since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 1997 (see table 1)7. There are many reasons behind the recent surge of FTAs in East Asia8: • the rapid expansion of such areas in other parts of the world has made the East Asian economies realize the importance of establishing FTAs to maintain and expand their export opportunities; • a stalemate of the negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda turned the attention of the members of the WTO with an interest in trade liberalization toward the advantages of FTAs; • the Asian financial crisis in 1997-1998 prompted East Asian economies to more awareness of the need for regional cooperation through initiatives such as FTAs in order to avoid another crisis; 6 Caroline L. Freund – “Regionalism and Permanent Diversion”, International Finance Discussion Paper no. 602, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, January 1998 7 Hongshik Lee and Innwon Park – “In Search of Optimised Regional Trade Agreements and Applications to East Asia”, The World Economy (2007) 8 Mona Haddad – “Trade integration in East Asia: the role of China and production networks”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4160, March 2007 • rivalry among East Asian economies over leadership in the region has Table 1 Major RTAs in East Asia
(Year Signed
of Under Negotiation
Under Consideration
into force)
Singapore – Japan China – Chile (2005) Singapore – Australia Singapore – Korea ASEAN – India Singapore – EFTA Korea – EFTA (2005) China Thailand – Australia Japan – Philippines ASEAN+3 – ASEAN plus China, Japan, Korea CER – Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand EFTA – European Free Trade Association Source: Hongshik Lee and Innwon Park – “In Search of Optimised Regional Trade Agreements and Applications to East Asia”, The World Economy (2007) While regionalism has been in existence for over half a century since World War II, China jumped onto the bandwagon only very recently, embodied initially by the formation of the China-Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (“CEPA”) and the China-Macao CEPA. China has also signed frameworks agreement for establishing free trade zones with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (“ASEAN”), and is negotiating similar arrangements with Australia, New Zealand, and the MERCOSURE countries. The CEPAs, which are already in operation, are RTA-like arrangements between China and the two “special administrative regions” under the Chinese political sovereign, with the signatories acting as members of the World Trade Organization (“WTO”). The proposed China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, with a nice acronym “CAFTA”, will create one of the world’s largest FTA, standing on par with the North America Free Trade Area (“NAFTA”) and the European Union (“EU”). It is also, the largest FTA made up of developing countries. 2. China’s Regional Trade Agreements
Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement
To promote the joint economic prosperity and development of the Mainland9 and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (hereinafter referred to as the “two sides"), to facilitate the further development of economic links between the two sides and other countries and regions, the two sides decided to sign the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (hereinafter referred to as the “CEPA”). This is the first free trade agreement ever concluded by the Mainland of China and Hong Kong. The idea of forming a RTA with Mainland China was first conceived by the Hong Kong Business community. In 1999, the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, anticipating China’s entry into the WTO, initiated a project to assess the impact of China’s entry on specific industries in Hong Kong10. The final report released in January 2000, suggested 9 In the “CEPA”, the "Mainland" refers to the entire customs territory of China. 10 Wang Jiang Yu – “China’s Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) Approach: the Law, the that the Hong Kong government should “explore the benefits of a Free Trade Area agreement with the Mainland, similar to the NAFTA type regional trade agreement, which would be in keeping with WTO rules”11.The main text of CEPA was signed on 29 June 2003 and CEPA with its annexes have been effective as CEPA consists of a Main Agreement together with six annexes, and two tables: Annex 1 – Arrangements for Implementation of Zero Tariffs for Trade in Goods; Table 1 (under Annex 1) – List of Hong Kong Origin Products for Implementation of Zero Import Annex 2 – Rules of Origin for Trade in Goods; Table 1 (under Annex 2) – Schedule on Rules of Origin for Hong Kong Goods Benefiting from Annex 3 – Procedures for the Issuing and Verification of Certificates of Origin; Form 1 (under Annex 4) – Certificate of Hong Kong Origin; Annex 4 – Specific Commitments on Liberalization of Trade in Services; Table 1 (under Annex 4) – The Mainland’s Specific Commitments on Liberalization of Trade in Table 2 (under Annex 4) – Hong Kong’s Specific Commitments on Liberalization of Trade in Annex 5 – Definition of “Service Supplier” and Related Requirements; Annex 6 – Trade and Investment Facilitation. CEPA opens up huge markets for Hong Kong goods and services, greatly enhancing the already close economic cooperation and integration between the Mainland and Hong Kong. CEPA adopts a building block approach, and the two sides have been working closely to introduce further liberalization measures continually. The agreed liberalization measures for various phases of CEPA are Geopolitics, and the Impact on the Multilateral Trading System”, Singapore Year Book of International Law, vol. 8/2004 11 • progressively reducing or eliminating tariff and non-tariff barriers on substantially all the trade in goods between the two sides; • progressively achieving liberalization of trade in services through reduction or elimination of substantially all discriminatory measures; • promoting trade and investment facilitation. CEPA is a win-win agreement, bringing new business opportunities to the Mainland, Hong Kong and all foreign investors. For Hong Kong, CEPA provides a window of opportunity for Hong Kong businesses to gain greater access to the Mainland market. CEPA also benefits the Mainland as Hong Kong serves as a “perfect springboard” for Mainland enterprises to reach out to the global market and accelerating the Mainland’s full integration with the world economy13. Under CEPA, the Mainland agreed to fully implement zero tariff on imported goods of Hong Kong origin from 1 January 2006, upon applications by local manufacturers and upon the CEPA origin rules (ROOs) being agreed and met. Imported goods do not include goods prohibited by the Mainland's rules and regulations and those prohibited as a result of the implementation of international treaties by the Mainland. So far, both sides have reached agreements on the CEPA ROOs for over one thousand four hundred items of goods. For goods that have no agreed ROOs for the time being, their relevant ROOs will be jointly worked out twice a year on applications by the trade from 2006. Goods exported from Hong Kong to the Mainland must fulfill the CEPA origin rules in order to claim zero tariff under CEPA. To claim the tariff preference, each consignment of goods exported to the Mainland must be accompanied by a Certificate of Hong Kong Origin - CEPA ("CO(CEPA)") issued by the Trade and 12 Industry Department or one of the five Government Approved Certification Organizations (i.e. the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Indian Chamber of Commerce, Hong Kong). Before applying for CO(CEPA), the Hong Kong manufacturer concerned is required to apply for Factory Registration (FR) with the Trade and Industry Department to demonstrate that its factory possesses sufficient capacity to produce the goods for export. Hong Kong service suppliers enjoy preferential treatment in entering into the Mainland market in various service areas. Professional bodies of Hong Kong and the regulatory authorities in the Mainland have also signed a number of agreements on mutual recognition of professional qualification Trade and investment facilitation Both sides agreed to enhance cooperation in various trade and investment facilitation areas to improve the overall business environment. The conclusion, implementation and amendment of the CEPA shall adhere to the • to abide by the "one country, two systems" principle; • to be consistent with the rules of the World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as the “WTO”); • to accord with the needs of both sides to adjust and upgrade their industries and enterprises and to promote steady and sustained • to achieve reciprocity and mutual benefits, complementarity with each other’s advantages and joint prosperity; • to take progressive action, dealing with the easier subjects before the The China – ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) Proposal
In 2000, a China – ASEAN Experts’ Group on Economic Cooperation was established to look into the possibility of establishing a free trade area between the two sides. At the Eight China – ASEAN Summit in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in November 2002, Chinese and ASEAN leaders signed the “Framework Agreement on the Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between ASEAN and China” (hereinafter the “FA”). It provides the groundwork for the eventual formation of the CAFTA by 2010 for the six older ASEAN members and 2015 for the newly admitted members (Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam)14. The Framework Agreement was amended by a Protocol signed on 6 October 2003 by China and ASEAN at their 2003 annual summit in Bali15 and it represents the first FTA initiative of both ASEAN, as a group, and China (outside the Greater China Area – Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). Specific measures towards the realization of CAFTA, which will be implemented progressively in the coming years, include the following16: • elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers in substantially all trade in • liberalization of trade in services with substantial sectoral coverage; • establishment of an open and competitive investment regime that facilitates and promotes investment within CAFTA; 14 Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between the Association of South East Asian Nations and the People’s Republic of China (5 November 2002), 15 The Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between the Association of South East Asian Nations and the People’s Republic of China (6 October 2003), 16 Wang Jiang Yu – “China’s Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) Approach: the Law, the Geopolitics, and the Impact on the Multilateral Trading System”, Singapore Year Book of International Law, vol. 8/2004 • special and differential treatment and flexibility to the newer ASEAN member states, including Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar and • flexible measures to allow the parties in CAFTA negotiations to address their sensitive areas in the goods, services and investment sectors with such flexibility to be negotiated and mutually agreed based on the principle of reciprocity and mutual benefit; • trade and investment facilitation measures, such as simplification of customs procedures and the development of mutual recognition • an open attitude toward further liberalization in new areas/sectors; • the establishment of appropriate mechanisms for the effective China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed on Sunday in Cebu an agreement on Trade in Services of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area. The agreement was signed following the 10th China-ASEAN Summit. The Trade in Services Agreement under the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between China and ASEAN (TIS Agreement) witch entered into force in July 2007 aims to expand trade in Under the agreement, services and services suppliers/providers in the region will enjoy improved market access and national treatment in sectors/subsectors Aside from increased trade, the TIS Agreement is also expected to bring about higher levels of investment in the region, particular in sectors where commitments have been made, namely: business service, construction and engineering related services, tourism and travel related services, transport and educational services, telecommunication services, recreational, cultural and sporting services, environmental services and energy services. In a speech delivered at the 10th China-ASEAN Summit, the Chinese premier said the signing "will mark a key step forward in the building of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area and lay the foundation for full and scheduled completion of the After implementation of the Agreement on Trade in Goods of China-ASEAN FTA began in July 2005, tariffs on more than 7,000 ASEAN and Chinese products were lowered, and China-ASEAN trade has maintained steady growth, Premier Wen said. Two-way trade in 2006 reached 160.8 billion U.S. dollars, up by 23.4 China welcomes more ASEAN businesses to China and encourages established Chinese companies to invest in ASEAN countries. China will favorably consider setting up in ASEAN countries, on the basis of mutual benefit, a number of economic and trade zones which have sound infrastructure and complete industrial chains, and are well connected with other sectors and will spur local economic development, said the Chinese premier. To support the building of China-ASEAN FTA, China proposes to strengthen cooperation between the customs and inspection and quarantine authorities of the two sides. China is ready to speed up discussions with ASEAN and sign a memorandum of understanding on establishing the China-ASEAN Trade, Investment and Tourism Promotion Center. China also proposed that a strategic plan for China-ASEAN transport cooperation in the next 10-15 years be formulated to facilitate coordinated development of regional transportation, improve integrated transport networks, and facilitate The China-ASEAN free trade area, which will comprise China, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, is expected to be one of the biggest free trade areas in The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), established on Aug. 8, 1967 in Bangkok, now groups Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. The "10+1" meeting is a mechanism designed to strengthen dialogue and communication, discuss cooperation, and promote peace, stability and prosperity China’s Regional Agreement with Australia
Besides the CEPA and ASEAN agreements, China has also signed two broad framework agreements with Australia and New Zealand, which may indicate how China plans to proceed in regional agreements with other OECD countries. A Trade and Economic Framework between Australia and China, signed in October 2003, sets out areas of future co-operation that aim to achieve balanced and comprehensive trade and investment facilitation and liberalization18. In textiles, clothing, and footwear, China and Australia commit to hold regular trade fairs and exhibitions, and support joint ventures and joint development of brands. In the services area, the parties plan to co-operate on education and training through mutual recognition of professional qualifications and facilitation of travel for Chinese personnel to Australia. In the area of technical barriers to trade, the countries will seek to improve trade facilitation by concluding a bilateral understanding that supplements multilateral commitments for quality supervision, Australia and China have been negotiating a free trade agreement (FTA) since the middle of 2005. However, Australia is facing an uphill battle to achieve the comprehensive agreement it seeks, with China so far failing to concede meaningful ground on access to its markets. 18 John Whalley – “China in the World Trading System”, CIGI Working Paper no. 2, Emerging Economies, October 2005 Australia had never underestimated the challenges of reaching agreement with the nation which will provide a market of 1.3 billion people. Much of the problem stemmed from the fact Australia was one of the first developed countries seeking an all-encompassing trade deal with China. While other western nations have struck agreements, most have gone for the easier option of leaving out whole sectors, an alternative known as a "dirty" FTA. Australia has been conducting seminars in Beijing explaining to both the Chinese government and businesses how it could be advantaged by opening up its markets to Australian goods and services. Australia hopes to cement its strong trading relations with China by becoming the first major Western economy to conclude an FTA with China. Australia is seeking increased access to China’s markets in wheat, wool, beef and sugar and especially in the growing services sector, but faces considerable resistance, despite Canberra’s arguments that Australian industries are too small to swamp China’s Regional Agreement with New Zealand
China and New Zealand also signed a Trade and Economic Co-operation Framework Agreement in May 2004, similar to China’s agreement with Australia. Specifically listed are areas of significant mutual economic potential where the countries will promote strategic co-operation. In the area of technical barriers to trade, the parties plan to use WTO/Technical Barriers to Trade mechanisms. In agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, and food safety, the parties will strengthen co-operation and further development of Joint Commissions China’s unbridled growth has become an increasingly familiar image in the minds of Westerners as their governments rush to hitch their wagon to the country’s New Zealand is leading the pack. It was the first developed country to enter into free-trade negotiations with China. Unlike Australia, New Zealand has immediately recognized China as a market economy. Officials estimate a "good-quality, comprehensive" agreement could boost the New Zealand economy by $240 million to $370 million a year through greater market access and tariff reductions. Therefore, the FTA is a bit more than just a tariff negotiation. It will send an unmistakable signal to China Inc that the Chinese authorities are comfortable with New Zealand, and it is expected that to bring as many benefits as the harder-line negotiations will produce. New Zealand hopes to wrap up a comprehensive free trade agreement with China by mid-2009 — a year later than scheduled. New Zealand was chosen by China as the first advanced economy to enter talks for a comprehensive FTA Other Potential Chinese Regional Agreements
China has also reached out to a number of countries for free trade arrangements. China has engaged in a series of bilateral talks with the MERCOSUR countries. The parties have agreed in September 2003 to start with bilateral agreements in specific areas and mechanisms to increase integration and facilitate trade. In May 2004, it has also agreed with Singapore and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to start bilateral FTA negotiations19. There are also bilateral activities with the Middle East. In July 2004, China and the GCC (UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia) signed a Framework Agreement on Economic, Trade, Investment, and Technological Cooperation. Under this agreement, the two countries encourage co-operation and technological exchange, expand trade, and promote mutual investment20. 19 Wang Jiang Yu – “China’s Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) Approach: the Law, the Geopolitics, and the Impact on the Multilateral Trading System”, Singapore Year Book of International Law, vol. 8/2004 20 John Whalley – “China in the World Trading System”, CIGI Working Paper no. 2, Emerging The six-nation GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) is fast becoming a regional trading bloc as more countries now want to forge free trade agreements (FTA) with it following its trade negotiations with China and India. For the GCC an accord with China should prove useful. It would mean getting access to one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Numerous studies expect the Chinese economy to post real gross domestic product (GDP) growth of more than 10 per cent in 2006. These studies suggest the Chinese economy would increasingly generate GDP growth based on local consumption and less so from exporting. Certainly, stronger reliance on local consumption implies that China would mostly likely be further opening up its market to a diversity of imports. At the moment, China is noted for importing raw materials, including minerals. However, this is likely to change with the new emphasis, a matter of benefit to many countries including the GCC. Press reports estimate bilateral trade between China and GCC at $21.1 billion in the first half of 2006. That figure represents a hefty 34 per cent rise versus the corresponding period in 2005. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are China’s main For the Chinese, an accord with the GCC is partly meant to satisfy its need for oil. Currently, China imports more than 40 per cent of its oil requirement from the GCC. China certainly needs to secure sustainable long-term supplies to meet its growing need. In fact, China is ranked second only to the United States in terms Unlike the separate FTA with the US, the GCC countries are united in pursing an accord with China. The GCC is currently a customs union, in turn requiring unified external trade policy towards non-members. The trend towards FTAs is testimony of the troubles facing the multilateral negotiations of the Doha round. China has intensified regional negotiations, proceeding pragmatically in different ways with various potential partners. These negotiations seemingly represent progressive engagement and the development of inter-country relationships as much as precise text with clearly defined and precisely articulated commitments. China is currently in talks with 28 countries and regions on regional trade arrangements and has already clinched a FTA with Chile and a cargo trade agreement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The surge in RTAs has continued unabated since the early 1990s. Some 380 RTAs have been notified to the GATT/WTO up to July 2007. Of these, 300 RTAs were notified under Article XXIV of the GATT 1947 or GATT 1994; 22 under the Enabling Clause; and 58 under Article V of the GATS. The World Bank estimates that every developing nation has participated in at least five regional trade arrangements on average. At that same date, 205 agreements were in force. If we take into account RTAs which are in force but have not been notified, those signed but not yet in force, those currently being negotiated, and those in the proposal stage, we arrive at a figure of close to 400 RTAs which are scheduled to be implemented by 2010. Of these RTAs, free trade agreements (FTAs) and partial scope agreements account for over 90%, while customs unions account 3. Conclusions
China’s recent RTA initiatives that have contributed significantly to the proliferation of regional trade arrangements should be viewed in a broad context encompassing the country’s and its neighbours’ economic, political and security concerns. China is already the second or third largest economy in the world and will shortly become the second largest trading nation. Supported by a cohesive Asian bloc, it could ascend even more rapidly toward a high degree of influence in, indeed leadership of, global economic norms and institutions. It is necessary to use multilateral trading rules, embodied in the WTO regime, to control the direction of regionalism and minimize the adversary effects of multilateralism. China, like other trading nations, has a moral obligation to ensure that its RTAs serve as “building blocs” for multilateral trade liberalization. References
Fiorentino, Roberto V. and Crawford, Jo-Ann 2005. “The Changing Landscape of Regional Trade Agreements, Discussion Paper no. 8, World Trade Organization, Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between the Association of South East Asian Nations and the People’s Republic of China (5 November 2002). ASEAN online at <> Freund, Caroline L. 1998. “Regionalism and Permanent Diversion, International Finance Discussion Paper no. 602, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Haddad, Mona 2007. “Trade integration in East Asia: the role of China and production networks”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4160, March Hoekman, Bernard 2005. “Designing North-South Trade Agreements to Promote Economic Development, World Bank and CEPR, June 2005 Lamy, Pascal 2007. “Regional agreements: the “pepper” in the multilateral “curry””, Speeches Bangalore, India Lee, Hongshik and Park, Innwon 2007. “In Search of Optimised Regional Trade Agreements and Applications to East Asia”, The World Economy Rădulescu, Irina Gabriela 2006. “Different faces of globalization and regionalization”, 5th Global Conference on Business&Economics, Cambridge The Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between the Association of South East Asian Nations and the People’s Republic of China (6 October 2003). ASEAN online at Tumbarello, Patrizia 2007. “Are Regional Trade Agreements in Asia Stumbling or Building Blocks? Implications for the Mekong-3 Countries, IMF Working Paper Whalley, John 2005. “China in the World Trading System”, CIGI Working Paper no. 2, Emerging Economies, October 2005 Yu, Wang Jiang 2004. “China’s Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) Approach: the Law, the Geopolitics, and the Impact on the Multilateral Trading System”, Singapore Year Book of International Law, vol. 8/2004


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Review of the examination and treatment of back and pelvic disorders - proceedings of aaep focus meeting - fort collins, 2007

Published in IVIS with the permission of the AAEP Review of the Examination and Treatment of Back and Pelvic Disorders Kevin K. Haussler, DVM, DC, PhD Author’s address: Gail Holmes Equine Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; E-mail: Kevin.Haussler@ColoState.

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