What are they?
e.g. long periods of time and/or in the heat, the body Stimulants are substances that have a direct stimulating heats up very easily and stimulants may make it difficult effect on the central nervous system. They increase for the body to cool down. The heart and other vital the excitation of brain and spinal cord, the cardiac organs may stop working properly, leading to the death output and rate of metabolism. The four most notorious of the athlete. Other potential harmful side effects examples of stimulants that are used in sport are amphetamine, cocaine, ephedrine and strychnine.
How would they be used to cheat in sport?
Stimulants may be used to attain the same effect as • Reduction of fatigue resulting in exhaustion adrenaline, which is secreted naturally in our body. They may produce alertness, wakefulness and an increased ability to concentrate. In addition, they may improve the faculty to exercise strenuously or produce a decreased sensitivity to pain. They may also decrease tiredness and increase competitiveness and aggression. • Palpitations and heart rhythm disorders• Diminished coordination, judgmental ability Potential harmful side effects
Stimulants have caused the death of several athletes. If an athlete has to perform under severe circumstances, • Increased body temperature (hyperthermia) DON’T THROW IT ALL AWAY
What else you should know
Stimulants are prohibited in-competition.
Cocaine occurs naturally in the leaf of the coca plant, The following stimulants are some of the stimulants that which grows in a wide area of Central and South are not currently prohibited under the Prohibited List, America. The original use of cocaine was to help against however they do appear on the Monitoring Program indigestion and to reduce fatigue amongst soldiers and whereby their presence in doping control samples workers. Later on it was used as an anti-depressant will be monitored to detect patterns of misuse in and as a local anaesthetic. The biggest problem of sport – Pseudoephedrine, Caffeine, Phenylephrine, cocaine is the addiction that most users get. In sport Phenylpropanolamine, Pipradrol, Synephrine, Bupropion.
cocaine-use has led to several deaths because of heart problems. The most dramatic and life-threatening effect Be aware that the Prohibited List is subject to
change annually.
Ephedrine and ‘look-alikes’
Warning: Herbal products, like the plant Ma Huang
Ephedrine is similar in mechanism to the amphetamines. or Ginseng preparations, contain drugs that are on Its clinical uses have included the non-emergency treatment of allergic reactions, asthma, and hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, atrioventricular block and Examples of stimulants
nasal congestion. The major use today is as a nasal Amphetamines
decongestant. In sport several cases are known of The therapeutic use of amphetamines has included athletes that have been disqualified because they used treatments for obesity, narcolepsy, minimal brain ephedrine, not knowing that it was forbidden, or used disfunction and depression. In some of these conditions medication not knowing that it contained ephedrine or the use has been decreased or ceased and been replaced by other medications with less potential for abuse. Some deaths of sportsmen have resulted even This fact-sheet is deliberately concise
when normal doses have been used under conditions For further information contact the Anti Doping Unit,
of maximal physical activity. There is no medical Irish Sports Council, Top Floor, Block A, justification for the use of amphetamines in sport.
Westend Office Park, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15. [email protected] DON’T THROW IT ALL AWAY


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