What are they?
e.g. long periods of time and/or in the heat, the body
Stimulants are substances that have a direct stimulating
heats up very easily and stimulants may make it difficult
effect on the central nervous system. They increase
for the body to cool down. The heart and other vital
the excitation of brain and spinal cord, the cardiac
organs may stop working properly, leading to the death
output and rate of metabolism. The four most notorious
of the athlete. Other potential harmful side effects
examples of stimulants that are used in sport are
amphetamine, cocaine, ephedrine and strychnine.
How would they be used to cheat in sport?
Stimulants may be used to attain the same effect as
• Reduction of fatigue resulting in exhaustion
adrenaline, which is secreted naturally in our body. They
may produce alertness, wakefulness and an increased
ability to concentrate. In addition, they may improve the
faculty to exercise strenuously or produce a decreased
sensitivity to pain. They may also decrease tiredness
and increase competitiveness and aggression.
• Palpitations and heart rhythm disorders• Diminished coordination, judgmental ability
Potential harmful side effects
Stimulants have caused the death of several athletes. If
an athlete has to perform under severe circumstances,
• Increased body temperature (hyperthermia)
DON’T THROW IT ALL AWAY
What else you should know
Stimulants are prohibited in-competition.
Cocaine occurs naturally in the leaf of the coca plant,
The following stimulants are some of the stimulants that
which grows in a wide area of Central and South
are not currently prohibited under the Prohibited List,
America. The original use of cocaine was to help against
however they do appear on the Monitoring Program
indigestion and to reduce fatigue amongst soldiers and
whereby their presence in doping control samples
workers. Later on it was used as an anti-depressant
will be monitored to detect patterns of misuse in
and as a local anaesthetic. The biggest problem of
sport – Pseudoephedrine, Caffeine, Phenylephrine,
cocaine is the addiction that most users get. In sport
Phenylpropanolamine, Pipradrol, Synephrine, Bupropion.
cocaine-use has led to several deaths because of heart problems. The most dramatic and life-threatening effect
Be aware that the Prohibited List is subject to
Ephedrine and ‘look-alikes’
Herbal products, like the plant Ma Huang
Ephedrine is similar in mechanism to the amphetamines.
or Ginseng preparations, contain drugs that are on
Its clinical uses have included the non-emergency
treatment of allergic reactions, asthma, and hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, atrioventricular block and
Examples of stimulants
nasal congestion. The major use today is as a nasal
decongestant. In sport several cases are known of
The therapeutic use of amphetamines has included
athletes that have been disqualified because they used
treatments for obesity, narcolepsy, minimal brain
ephedrine, not knowing that it was forbidden, or used
disfunction and depression. In some of these conditions
medication not knowing that it contained ephedrine or
the use has been decreased or ceased and been
replaced by other medications with less potential for abuse. Some deaths of sportsmen have resulted even
This fact-sheet is deliberately concise
when normal doses have been used under conditions
For further information contact the Anti Doping Unit
of maximal physical activity. There is no medical
Irish Sports Council, Top Floor, Block A,
justification for the use of amphetamines in sport.
Westend Office Park, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15.
DON’T THROW IT ALL AWAY
One Vanderbilt Park Drive, Suite 115, Asheville, NC 28803 (828) 274-2221 • www.AshevillePsych.net • Fax (828)274-2226 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date of first appointment _______________________ Name______________________________________ Date of Birth_________________ List the problems for which you
WARFARIN NECROSIS TREATMENT with TRANSDERMAL CONTINUOUS OXYGEN THERAPY Stephanie Wu, DPM, MSc* and Donald Kemp, MD# * Associate Professor of Surgery, Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Center for Lower Extremity Ambulatory Research, Chicago IL #Renfrew Victoria Hospital, Wound care Clinic, Renfrew, ON, Canada Warfarin (Coumadin; DuPont Pharma, Wilmington, DE) is a sy