ΤΠΟΤΡΓΕΙΟ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΣΙΜΟΤ
ΔΙΕΤΘΤΝΗ ΜΕΗ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΤΗ
ΚΡΑΣΙΚΑ ΙΝΣΙΣΟΤΣΑ ΕΠΙΜΟΡΦΩΗ
ΣΕΛΙΚΕ ΕΝΙΑΙΕ ΓΡΑΠΣΕ ΕΞΕΣΑΕΙ
ΥΟΛΙΚΗ ΥΡΟΝΙΑ 2010-2011
Διάρκεια: 2:30 ώρες
Ημερομηνία: 17 Μαΐοσ 2011
ΣΟ ΕΞΕΣΑΣΙΚΟ ΔΟΚΙΜΙΟ ΑΠΟΣΕΛΕΙΣΑΙ ΑΠΟ ΠΕΝΣΕ ( 5 ) ΕΛΙΔΕ
ΟΛΕ ΟΙ ΑΠΑΝΣΗΕΙ ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΤΝ ΣΟ ΣΕΣΡΑΔΙΟ
PART I: COMPOSITION (40 MARKS)
Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:
What factors influence people when they decide on a future career? PART II: READING COMPREHENSION (30 MARKS)
How to be happy
Happiness is hard to define. For some people it’s about being in love or the birth of a child, for others, winning the lottery or being in touch with nature. In scientific terms,
happiness has different dimensions. Positive psychology expert, Sheila Panchal, explains: “Psychologists have identified three elements to happiness – having pleasures in life, being engaged and using your strengths on a regular basis, and experiencing a sense of meaning by feeling part of something greater than yourself.”
Happy people have stronger immune systems – when exposed to the flu virus, they are
more able to resist it – and they recover from surgery faster. Happy people also tend to
live longer. That’s the conclusion from an analysis of the attitudes of new nuns entering
an American convent in 1932. Psychologists rated each of them for the level of positive
feeling expressed and found a correlation
with how long each nun lived.
The relationship between money and happiness is complex. “If you’re below the breadline, then extra money makes a difference to your happiness,” says Panchal. But after a certain level of income, extra money does not make you that much happier. One key factor seems to be that we start to compare ourselves with others and this creates
In one study, Harvard students were asked what they would prefer – a
world where they got $50,000 a year and everyone else got $25,000 or one where their
income was doubled to $100,000, but others got more - $250,000. The majority
preferred the first world, where they got less in absolute terms, but at least it was more
than everyone else.
Studies on twins show a strong genetic component in happiness and depression. This is not just because twins share the same environment – research on identical twins brought up apart shows the same. However, the genes involved in happiness are unknown and, as with all psychological attributes, it is likely that many different genes
are responsible. One group of genes that may be involved in positive mood are those dealing with the brain chemical serotonin. Low levels of serotonin are linked to depression. Drugs like Prozac boost serotonin levels and so lift depression and improve mood. But even if you are born miserable, you can still learn to be happier by changing your outlook and attitude.
Relationships are one of the most important sources of our happiness. Socioeconomic
surveys in Germany suggest that both men and women become happier when they
marry. Happiness increases as the marriage approaches
, peaks in the first year and
then decreases a little as people get used to their new status. However, it still remains
at a higher level than in the single state. Children, as you might expect, are a source of
joy when they are born, but within two years, their parents’ happiness tends to revert to
Happiness around the world is tracked by projects such as the World Database of
Happiness. It seems that populations in Western countries, such as Britain, have not got
any happier since 1950. This appears to be true despite massive
increases in the
standard of living and quality of life. Dr Stevens identifies two major barriers to achieving
happiness in the 21st century – the car and the media. Cars isolate you from the local
community so that your neighbourhood and town centre more often feel like threatening
places rather than a positive resource. Television (and to a lesser extent print media) exposes people to violence, bad news and consumer pressures which create fear and discontent. TV watching is also passive and takes away time that could be used for much more satisfying activities.
According to the US General Social Survey, the main sources of happiness are, in order
of importance: family, relationships, finances, work, social networks and health. Added
to that are personal values and freedom. Based on his long-standing research, Dr
Stevens claims happiness comes from the body, relationships and learning to direct
your thoughts in a positive way. That doesn’t just mean vaguely
wishing that things in
your life were different. It means taking definite steps to improve your life. “Take exercise and watch your diet, work at caring, loving relationships and give them the time they need,” he says. “Smile at strangers, make small gestures and, above all, list the good things you have to be grateful for. If you think like this, wellbeing and good feelings will follow.”
A. Choose the best answer A, B, C or D according to the text. (5x3=15 marks)
A. is a scientific term with lots of meanings.
B. cannot be defined.
C. means the same for all people.
D. does not mean the same for all people.
2. Harvard students would prefer to get…
A. twice as much as everyone else.
B. as much as everyone else.
C. more than everyone else.
D. less than everyone. 3. People are happier when they…
A. have children.
B. are about to get married.
C. are married.
D. are married for a year. 4. Television acts negatively on people because…
A. it exposes people to violence.
B. it exposes people to bad news.
C. it exposes people to consumer pressures.
D. All of the above. 5. According to a Social Survey, the most important source of happiness is…
D. freedom. B. Answer the following questions according to the text. (3x3=9 marks)
1. What are the benefits of happiness?
2. Why do cars and the media prevent people from being happy?
3. What three (3) things can people do to be happy?
C. Explain the following words, in bold in the text, by using one word or a short
phrase, as they are used in the text. (6x1=6 marks)
6. vaguely PART III: USE OF ENGLISH (30 MARKS)
A. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence using the word given. Do not change the word given. (5x2=10 marks)
1. The technician fixed his computer for him. (fixed)
He____________ by a technician.
2. “It was you who caused all that trouble,” Jeff said to me. (accused)
Jeff ____________ all that trouble.
3. The students thought the exam would be slightly more difficult. (quite)
The exam wasn’t ____________ had thought it would be.
4. Perhaps she was asleep when we called. (sleeping)
She ____________ when we called.
5. It’s a pity I didn’t take my umbrella. (wish)
I ____________ my umbrella. B. Use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits the blank.
What is a true friend? In reality there are very few about. There is no (1) … (SHORT)
acquaintances, who you may meet at some function or who are friends of friends and
with whom you have a superficial (2) … (RELATE)
. You may have taken an (3) …
coffee with an acquaintance and discussed the weather or the (4) …
sports results, or something (5) … (EQUAL)
trivial, but basically their life is a
closed book to you. A friend, on the other hand, is someone who you can share your
(6) … (THINK)
with, and who will support you (7) … (CONDITION)
through thick and
thin. You can rely on a friend to tell you the truth, however (8) … (PLEASE)
may be. Friends are not (9) … (ENVY)
of your happiness or success, and there are no
(10) … (HIDE)
agendas between friends. True friends are hard to find, and are worth
C. Complete the blanks with ONE suitable word. (10x1=10 marks)
What our future might be
Everyone fears the nightmare scenario of a nuclear catastrophe, but what is (1) …
to prevent one occurring? When we read futuristic or science fiction books (2) …
black picture of our future, we all hope that (3) …
an event will not happen, but do we do
anything to ensure our security? If we don’ t start thinking about it, we (4) …
regret it. (5) …
we take more care of our environment, we may well destroy it. We are
still reliant on nuclear energy, and (6) …
politicians and the Energy Industry assure us
that it is safe, who can forget the Chernobyl disaster, which had repercussions for many
years after the event? People (7) …
lives are dependent on the industry obviously do
not want to lose (8) …
jobs, so do not want to explore the possibilities of renewable
sources of energy. (9) …
, we should all make our voices heard and insist that our
governments put money (10) …
the research and development of new, renewable
sources of energy to avoid a nuclear holocaust.
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Material Safety Data Sheet U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration The information contained herein is based on data LINCO-10 Considered accurate: however, no warranty either expressed or implied of any nature with respect to the product or the data is made. Section I ANIMAL SCIENCE PRODUCTS 1-800-424-9300 CHEMTREC Address (Number, Street, Cit