Microsoft word - what will happen after my first sleep study - revised jan 2013.docx

Raymond Gottschalk MB ChB FRCP(C) D.ABSM
Medical Director, Quality Advisor
TELEPHONE: (905) 529-2259
TELEPHONE: (905) 646-8582
FAX: (905) 529-2262
FAX: (905) 529-2262
1. If your first sleep study is normal, you have mild sleep apnea, or any other sleep disorder other than apnea, you will be notified about a follow up appointment with a sleep doctor in our office by mail or email (if we have an email address on file). The appointment date will be within 2-4 months of your sleep study, depending on the results. If you would rather discuss the results with your family doctor, he or she will receive the results within 2-3 weeks of your overnight study and can review the recommendations made by the sleep doctor with you. You can check with our office prior to visiting your family doctor, to make sure that the results have been sent, by phoning or emailing reception. 2. If you have moderately severe or severe sleep apnea, you will be called by our office within 3-4 weeks of your sleep study, sometimes sooner, and asked to return for a second sleep study with a CPAP machine. This kind of apnea should be treated with a CPAP machine. 3. If you have mild or moderate sleep apnea, you will be contacted to come in for a short daytime appointment with a doctor to review the results of your sleep study and go over options for treatment. If treatment with CPAP is recommended you will attend an overnight CPAP / treatment study. 4. Within a few days after your CPAP study you will be referred to a Home Care Company of your choice for CPAP set up (trial or purchase, see “CPAP TRIAL VS PURCHASE” handout). They will contact you within one week of your CPAP study. If you do not hear from them within one week, please phone reception at 905 529 2259 or email us at 5. You will see the sleep doctor within 3 months after your CPAP study for a consultation to assess your response to CPAP. Before you attend the appointment with the doctor, we would like you to visit the Home Care Company to obtain compliance data. This data is printed off your CPAP machine and allows the doctor to see how you are using your machine. SNORING AND SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING

MECHANISM: As soon as we fall asleep, the muscles that position the tongue and the muscles
which stiffen the throat become relaxed. This allows the tongue to move backwards and the uvula
or “little tongue” moves downwards. The throat is narrowed and as we suck air through this
narrowed passage, turbulence occurs and vibration of the soft tissue especially the uvula causes
SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING: As the throat becomes narrowed, more effort is required
to continue breathing. Even though breathing does not stop, the brain can sense the increased
effort and may bring you back to a lighter level of sleep - so that you can pull your tongue forward
and open up your throat to resume normal breathing. This process can disturb or fragment your
sleep, leading to poorly refreshing sleep.
During sleep the throat may also close completely not allowing air to move in or out of the lungs,
or the throat may close to such an extent that much less air gets in and out of the lungs. Both of
these situations can lead to a drop in the level of oxygen in the blood, and this together with the
effort of attempting to breathe will force your brain to bring you back to a lighter level of sleep.
Sleep fragmentation and sleepiness results.
Snoring: A vibration of the uvula and other soft tissue at the back of the throat.
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome: Narrowing of the throat/ airway during sleep that
leads to difficult breathing and fragmented sleep. Usually accompanied by snoring.
Hypopnea: Narrowing of the throat leading to a marked reduction in breathing which
usually causes a slight drop in the level of oxygen in the blood and also fragments sleep.
Apnea: Closure of the airway which leads to complete stoppage of breathing. This
causes the level of oxygen in the blood to drop - sometimes severely. Sleep fragmentation
also occurs.

CONSEQUENCES: Sleep disordered breathing is associated with a higher risk for:
Heart attack
High blood pressure
Sudden death
Motor vehicle and industrial accidents

With severe untreated sleep apnea, the risk of death over the next 10 years is approximately

With appropriate treatment and follow-up, this risk is reduced to normal.
Contributing Factors:
· much more common above the age of 40 years. · increased rate in post-menopausal women. · much more common with weight gain and obesity. · alcohol, sleeping tablets and some drugs make snoring and apnea worse. Recognition:
· loud irregular snoring sometimes punctuated by silence as the throat closes. The chest and abdomen may continue to heave as the person struggles for breath. · apnea is often terminated by a loud breath or grunt as the throat opens. · restlessness with body twitches and jerks during sleep.sudden awakening with a feeling of Symptoms:
· change in personality - grumpy, depressed, short-tempered. Diagnosis:
A detailed sleep study is required. During sleep, breathing, snoring, heart rate, blood oxygen
levels, brain waves and body movement are monitored. The study allows the doctor to determine
whether there is a problem and how severe it is.
Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure - CPAP:
This is generally the most effective and reliable treatment. A small mask, connected to an air
pump, is placed over the nose. A stream of humidified air is then pushed through the nostrils
down the throat, and thereby splints the throat open. Nasal CPAP is so effective that the benefit
is often experienced within a day or two.

Surgery/Laser Surgery:
For mild to moderate sleep apnea, surgery can be an option. However results
can be unpredictable. Generally surgery should only be considered if CPAP cannot be
Dental Appliances:
These look something like gum-guards that are used for sport. They cover
both upper and lower teeth and are hinged in such a way so as to push the lower teeth and jaw
forward. The space behind the tongue is then widened. They range in price up to about $1,200.
Success is also somewhat variable at 30 - 70%. These are specialized devices and should be made
by a dentist who specializes in oral appliances.
Dental Appliance Suppliers:
Positional Training:
For those subjects who only have difficulties when lying on their backs, using a tennis ball or
similar device sewn on to the back of a shirt can be effective.
Weight Loss:
Significant weight loss can sometimes cure snoring and sleep apnea. TREATMENT WITH NASAL CPAP

CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) is a device that pushes air through the nostrils to
the throat and by doing this keeps the throat open so as to prevent snoring and apnea.
Assistive Devices Program (Government of Ontario) 1-800-268-1154
The Ministry of Health, through the Assistive Devices Program, contributes up to $780.00
towards the purchase price and your share of the cost is approximately $300 -$800, depending on
the products chosen by you.
CPAP MUST be used whenever you go to sleep -- including daytime or evening naps.
Nasal blockage will prevent CPAP from being effective. Nasal blockage from hayfever or a
head cold must be promptly treated.
Head Colds - usually a decongestant nasal spray such as Otrivin or Dristan may be used but not for more than 5 days in a row. There is a risk of recurring stuffiness if these are used for longer and these medications are potentially harmful especially if you have high blood pressure.
Nasal crusting, bleeding and irritation - air is blown through your nose at a rate of 110
litres/minute. For some people this causes inflammation and irritation. Most people adapt very
quickly and do not require any specific treatment. If, however you are experiencing nasal
crusting, bleeding or irritation, the following treatments should be tried:
· Secaris Nasal Lubricant/Rhinaris Nasal Spray: Used regularly before and after CPAP
treatment may prevent these problems. Both may be obtained over-the-counter. · Nasal Steroid Sprays: e.g. Flonase, Beconase, Rhinocort, Nasacort and others are
sometimes used to treat and prevent inflammation. These are prescription medicines. · CPAP Humidifier: This is very helpful to prevent irritative nasal symptoms.

For abrasions across the bridge of the nose, Mole Skin can be used for protection. (This can be
purchased in a drug store.) For abrasions across the forehead, sponge rubber spacers should be
used. These are usually supplied with the CPAP equipment.
Most CPAP systems are easily adapted for both 110 and 220 volts. Consult your supplier. We
have patients who have even gone camping or hunting and have used portable generators to
charge 12 volt batteries, or run their CPAP directly from a generator.


· Nasal CPAP is wonderfully effective for most people. Benefit is often evident within 2 - · For full protection, CPAP must be used regularly. · Carry-over effect - when CPAP is stopped, snoring and apnea may not recur for a few days. This is because CPAP reduces swelling and inflammation of the tissues in the throat. The swelling gradually returns when CPAP protection is withdrawn. · If snoring occurs while wearing CPAP - this indicates that the treatment is inadequate - PLEASE NOTIFY YOUR FAMILY DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY. The Home Care
Company is able to make minor changes to your pressures while you wait for an
appointment to see our doctor. Do not discontinue use of CPAP without informing our
· If you are admitted to hospital, you must inform the ER or intake doctor that you are on · If you have surgery, you must inform the doctors and anaesthetists that you are on CPAP before you go in for the operation. You must take your machine and mask and hosing to the hospital with you to use after the surgery. · Repeat sleep studies are not necessary unless your health changes significantly (onset of heart disease, stroke) or there is a major change in your weight. · Regular contact with the Home Care Company you bought your CPAP from is important. They will recommend how to maintain the machine and when to replace the mask, and / or hosing. · Be kind to your CPAP machine- keep it clean and dry, and wash the mask or clean it with THE SLEEP DISORDERS CLINIC
Raymond Gottschalk MB ChB FRCP(C) D.ABSM
Medical Director, Quality Advisor
TELEPHONE: (905) 529-2259
TELEPHONE: (905) 646-8582
FAX: (905) 529-2262
FAX: (905) 529-2262
This is a tool to help you interview and compare potential CPAP providers. When
purchasing your CPAP equipment, there are many things to take into consideration about
the Company: their people, and the cost and scope of the products and services they offer.

The following are the names and phone numbers of recommended Home Care Companies in our area: When you come in for your CPAP study you will be asked to provide the evening
receptionist with the name of the Home Care Company of your choice. This is where the
referral will be sent within a few days after your CPAP study.

1. Do you offer trials of CPAP equipment before purchase? If so,
a) What is the cost?
b) What is the length of time?
c) Will I be allowed to trial different masks during the trial
period and is there an additional charge for this?
2. If I decide to purchase, a) what will be the full amount
that I would have to pay, including all professional fees?
b) What payment options do I have?
3. What type of ongoing maintenance do you provide and
what are the costs involved?
a) What support is available to me should my CPAP
machine malfunction in the future?
b) What kinds of CPAP machines do you sell? Are they
current models with updated technology? Computer chip?
4. What are the qualifications of the people providing the
instructions and education on CPAP therapy?
5. How long have you been selling CPAP equipment?
Raymond Gottschalk MB ChB FRCP(C) D.ABSM
Medical Director, Quality Advisor
TELEPHONE: (905) 529-2259
TELEPHONE: (905) 646-8582
FAX: (905) 529-2262
FAX: (905) 529-2262
You are attending The Sleep Disorders Clinic for a sleep study that will identify whether or not
you have SLEEP APNEA. If you have SLEEP APNEA, you will be asked to return to The
Sleep Disorders Clinic for another sleep study using a CPAP MASK which will help you to
keep breathing while you are sleeping.
A few days after the CPAP study you will be sent to a HOME CARE COMPANY. The Home
Care Company staff will help you decide whether or not you should TRIAL OR BUY the CPAP
If your apnea is SEVERE, you will be strongly encouraged to BUY the machine as CPAP is the
best treatment for severe apnea and will protect you from high blood pressure, heart disease and
stroke, and other diseases.
If your apnea is MILD TO MODERATE, and you were not sure that the CPAP helped while
you were in the sleep laboratory, you may have the option of BORROWING the machine to see
if you feel better using the machine. When you see the doctor, he or she will help you to decide if
CPAP is the correct treatment for you based on the results of your sleep test and other factors.
The Home Care Company will loan you the CPAP machine for a period of 1 MONTH. During
this time you will use the machine every night and for all other times that you sleep (including
A. The COST for the loan of the machine is as follows: · You may need to purchase the mask and hosing as these cannot be used again: · Some CPAP suppliers may charge a fee for the period of the 1 month loan. Most do not. Make sure you find out before you pick up the loaner machine. · If you do not return the machine after the period of the loan you may be charged B. If the CPAP machine helped you to sleep better, you feel less tired during the day, and your snoring and apneas have stopped, you may decide to buy the machine immediately from the Home Care Company. If you do not feel better and decide not to use the CPAP machine, you may contact our office and ask for an earlier appointment to see the doctor. We may be able to accommodate you. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO RETURN THE CPAP EQUIPMENT ON TIME. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO LET OUR OFFICE KNOW IF YOU ARE NOT USING CPAP AND WANT
The Sleep Disorders Clinic, Dr Gottschalk, and his staff, have no business interest in any of
the Home Care Companies in the Hamilton, St Catharines or Cambridge regions.


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