1. Project / network content 1.1 Why is the project / network / thematic seminar needed? Explain the rationale and the background of the project /network / thematic seminar.
Online digital video and audio is becoming a major opportunity for teacher education. Video has been used for many years in teacher education, for it is virtually the only way to “visit” a classroom without disturbing the class. However, traditional “analogue” video is not easy to use: videotapes have to be stored and copied and it is not easy to locate a small fragment on a particular videotape. Digital video however, is much more flexible in use. It can be stored in one location on the web, links can be made to certain fragments and teachers and students can see the video everywhere with a broadband internet connection. It is no longer necessary to copy videotapes to show the video to others. There are many examples conceivable of using online video in teacher education: • Students can film there own lessons, put the video online and show other students and teacher educators fragments of their lessons. This can be part of their portfolio and the authentic situation can be part of the assessment. A interesting tool for doing this is the virtual cutter (http://video.surfnet.nl/snijmachine/select_file.php), that makes it possible to make a link in a document to certain fragments of online video. • Online video can also be used to store examples of good (and maybe bad) practice on a server, from where they can be recalled on a later moment, depending on the needs of the training program. Often examples of good practice can only be observed on a moment which is not appropriate for training purposes (e.g. the first reading activities in primary schools happen in September, while teacher training starts in October). A database with examples of good practice can be consulted at any time and from every where. It also offers additional possibilities analysis (see for example the Mile project of the Freudenthal institute: www.fi.uu.nl). • Online video can be used for designing cases of practical situations and problems in education, so student teachers can study such a situation or problem and discuss this with other students and teachers. A video case makes it possible for students to have the same reference situation. • Online video can be used for preparing student teachers before going inservice, by showing what to do and what not to do. • Video conferencing for supporting in-service teachers on a distance. Especially when students are in rural schools, it is often not easy to support them from the teacher education centre. Video conferencing (using webcams or more sophisticated material) makes it possible to see each other on a distance. Seeing each other is important because of the visibility of non-verbal signals. • With video conferencing it is possible to organize a class with an expert of another university. • Online video can be used to show students from different countries the culture of teaching in their own country (“cross-culturalisation”). • With Video conferencing students of different countries can cooperate on the same tasks. • With online video lectures can be stored on the internet.
Because the use of online video is relatively new, there is little experience of its use in teacher education. This project is designed to study the benefits of online video and especially the kind of pedagogy can be used when using online video in teacher education. These benefits and the pedagogy will be the basis of a practical handbook for teacher educators, a workshop for teacher educators and a website where teacher educators and student teachers can find all kind of inforamtion, including example video's that helps them to use online video in their own 1.2 In case of networks / thematic seminars, what is the main targeted thematic area? 1.3 What are the objectives of the project / network / thematic seminar? What is the expected impact of the project / network / thematic seminar on the situation described under point 1.1?
The objective is to design a pedagogy for the different kinds of use of online video and audio in teacher education and to disseminate this pedagogy in the EU to teacher educators. A secondary objective is to exchange knowledge between student teachers of teaching culture and styles. 1.4 What are the main outputs / products (e.g. training courses and modules, guides, directories, common tools, Webbased services, multimedia products, syntheses, needs analyses, reports, comparative analyses, conferences, seminars etc.) to be developed by the project / network? • Experiments with the use of digital video and audio in teacher education in different cultures. The results of these experiments will be formulated in good practices and will form the basis for the design of a pedagogy for the use of digital video in teacher education. • A description of the pedagogy for the use of digital video in teacher education. • A model for a workshop for teacher educators how to use digital video in teacher education. This model contains (video)materials to support the workshop. • A website with examples of good practices of the use of video in teacher education. The website will provide at least three languages of the EU (English, French and German) and the languages of the countries that are involved in the project. The website will be based on a database of audio and video learning objects that maybe downloaded by the users. • A practical handbook about the pedagogy of digital video in teacher education. This book has links to the website. Language of the book will be
English. • A website where students of different countries show examples of their teaching and school and subject culture. • A database with examples of good practice by experienced teachers in e.g. primary or secondary schools, which can be (1) consulted by student teachers drawing inspiration from them for their own teaching (2) used by teacher trainers to illustrate principles of teaching they discuss during their classes. During the project and while still 'under construction' this database is open to the participating universities; later on it will be available to every European institute for teacher training. The examples will be subtitled in other languages if necessary. 1.5 What are the main activities of the project / network in order to achieve the outputs / products? If possible please provide the approximate timetable foreseen.
• Literature search about what is known about using online video in education and especially in teacher education. • Experimenting with different kind of use of online video in teacher education (see 1.1 for examples). • Analyzing the experiments, especially on do’s and don’ts • Designing a pedagogy for use of online video in teacher education. This pedagogy wil be the basis of the website and handbook. • Developing a website with examples of how to use online video. • Writing a practical handbook for how to use online video in teacher education. This books has links to the website/database. • Designing workshops fo teacher educators about how to use online video in teacher education. • Giving workshops for teacher educators. This can be workshops on conferences for teacher educators but also specially organized workshops. • Videorecording examples of good practice in primary and secondary schools, editing them and compiling a database which can be consulted by student teachers and teacher trainers • Giving presentations on National and European conferences, with a focus on teacher educators. 1.6 What are the precise target groups which will benefit directly and indirectly from the outputs / products and activities of the project / network / thematic seminar?
The target groups are the teacher educators. Indirectly also future teachers are a target group, because we believe that showing teacher students the opportunities of digital video will help them to use digital video in their classes as well. 1.7 What are the main pedagogical concepts and methodological / didactical approaches underlying the project /network / thematic seminar? There are two main pedagogical concepts that fundaments our project: a strong emphasis on social constructivism and competency based learning. Video can support both concepts. Research show that the use of video case studies for example can be very effective in teacher
education. Video case studies bring authentic situations in teacher education classes. Due to social constructivist theories authentic situations are very important for learning practical skills (see Bransford et al, 2000). Video can also play an important role in the use of a portfolio, because (online) video makes it possible to use video fragments of own practical skills in such a portfolio. A portfolio is a very important tool for competency based learning and the use of video gives another dimension of that competency based learning. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L. & Cocking, R.R. (2000) “How People Learn. Brain, Mind, Experience and School”, Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. 1.8 What do you consider to be innovative about the project / network / thematic seminar? What is the European dimension of the project / network / thematic seminar?
Digital online video and audio is now a few years old, but it can be used in teacher education only quite recently, because the technique of formatting digital video was not always compatible with all computers (and still is not always) and because of the lack of bandwidth in universities and on schools. However, as digital video gets more common the technique is now quite reliable and most universities and more and more schools have now broadband internet connections which makes it possible to use digital video online. Because until recently digital video could not be used in teacher education, there is not much experience with it in teacher education. There is experience with analogue video, but that use is less flexible and gave fewer opportunities. This project wants to learn and to demonstrate the opportunities this new techniques gives in teacher education. Some of the participating partners already have some experience with online video and audio. One of the objectives of the project is to learn from these partners. Also, the use of online video can differ in different countries, because of teaching culture, structure of teacher education, legislation and cultural dimensions. There are some projects already in different countries to support video in teacher and higher education, but little is known about the use of video in different cultures. We want to analyze how these culture influences the pedagogy of use of digital online video.
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