Impact of Treating Dyslipidemiaon Cardiovascular Events Zeljko Reiner & Diana Muaˇcevi´c-KatanecUniversity Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Additional References
12. Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Ran- domised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients 1. Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvas- guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clini- tatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994;344:1383–9.
cal practice. Atherosclerosis 2007;194:1–44.
14. Reiner Z. The role of hypolipemic drugs today. Medicus 2. Newton KM, Lacroix AZ, Buist DSM. Overview of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. In: Goldman MB, 15. Rubins HB, Robins HJ, Collins D et al. Gemfibrozil for Hatch MC (eds.) Women and Health. 1st ed. San Diego: the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein choles- 3. Merkler M, Reiner ˇZ. The burden of hyperlipidaemia terol. N Engl J Med 1999;341:410–8.
and diabetes in cardiovascular diseases. Fundament Clin 16. Tavella M, Corder CN, McConathy W. Effects of gemfi- brozil on fatty acids in lipid fractions of plasma from 4. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al; for the West of patients with hypertrigliceridemia. J Clin Pharmacol Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with 17. Sirtori CR. Activity profile of gemfibrozil on the major hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1301– plasma lipoprotein parameters. Eur J Epidemiol 1992; 5. Ross R, Glomset JA. The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis 18. Nutescu EA, Shapiro NL. Ezetimibe: A selective choles- (First of Two Parts). New Engl J Med 1976;295:369–77.
terol absorption inhibitor. Pharmacotherapy 2003; 6. Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial 19. The Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Clofi- infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. N brate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA 1975; 7. Reiner ˇZ. Tedeschi-Reiner E. New data on pathophysiol- 20. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year ogy of atherosclerosis. Lijeˇc Vjesn 2001;123:26–31.
mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term 8. Reiner ˇZ. Statins in primary and secondary prevention benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;8:1245–55.
of coronary disease. Medicus 2003;12(1): 85–90.
21. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group.
9. Kuller LH, Meilahn EN. Risk factors for cardiovascular Influence of Pravastatin and Plasma Lipids on Clini- disease among women. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996;7:203–8.
cal Events in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention 10. Gordon T, Castelli WP, Hjortland MC, et al. High Study (WOSCOPS). Circulation 1998;97:1440–5.
density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coro- 22. Ford I, Murray H, Packard CJ, et al; for the West of nary heart disease. The Framingham Study. Am J Med Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. Long-term follow-up of the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention 11. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Preven- Study. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1477–86.
tion Trial Results. II. The Relationship of Reduction in 23. Clearfield M, Downs JR, Weis S, et al. Air Force/ Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease to Cholesterol Low- Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AF- CAPS/TexCAPS): Efficacy and Tolerability of Long-Term S E C T I O N I I I Hypercholesterolemia and Early Atherosclerosis
Treatment with Lovastatin in Women. J Women’s Health on progression of coronary atherosclerosis: a random- ized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:1071–80.
24. Downs JR, Clearfield M, Tyroler HA, et al. Air 35. Colhoun HM, Betteridge DJ, Durrington PN, et al.; on Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study behalf of the CARDS Investigators. Primary prevention (AFCAPS/TEXCAPS): additional perspectives on tolera- of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 di- bility of long-term treatment with lovastatin. Am J Car- abetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled 25. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Is- chaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of 36. Nissen S, for The REVERSAL Investigators. Assess- Cardiovascular Events and Death with Pravastatin in ing the effects of statins on atherosclerosis progres- Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and a Broad sion using intravascular ultrasound: rationale and de- Range of Initial Cholesterol Levels. N Engl J Med sign of the REVERSAL study. Atherosclerosis 2001;2: 26. Sacks FM, Ridker PM. Lipid lowering and beyond: re- 37. Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Sipahi I et al. Effect of very sults from the CARE study on lipoproteins and inflam- high intensity statin therapy on regression of coro- mation. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events. Herz 1999;24: nary atherosclerosis. The ASTEROID Trial. JAMA 27. Lewis SJ, Sacks FM, Mitchell JS, et al. Effect of pravas- 39. Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FAH, et al. for the tatin on cardiovascular events in women after myocardial JUPITER Study Group. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascu- infarction: the cholesterol and recurrent events (CARE) lar events in men and women with elevated C-reactive trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:140–6.
protein. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2195–2207.
28. Sever PS, Dahlof B, Poulter NR, et al. Prevention of coro- 40. Kastelein JJ, Akdim F, Stroes ES, et al.; ENHANCE nary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hyperten- Investigators. Simvastatin with or without ezetim- sive patients who have average or lower-than-average ibe in familial hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial–Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT- 41. Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, et al. Athero- LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet genic lipoprotein phenotype: a proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation 1990;82: 29. Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Papageorgiou AA, et al.
Relationship between LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels 42. Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Moorjani S, et al. Small, dense and clinical outcome in the GREek Atorvastatin and low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the Coronary-Heart-Disease Evaluation (GREACE) Study.
risk of ischemic heart disease in men: prospective results.
30. Schwartz GG, Olsson AG, Ezekowitz MD, et al; My- 43. Castelli WP. Epidemiology of triglycerides: a view from ocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Framingham. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:3H–9H.
Lowering (MIRACL) Study Investigators. Early Effects of 44. Assmann G, Schulte H. The importance of triglyc- atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute erides:Results from the Prospective Cardiovascular Mun- coronary syndromes: the MIRACL study: a randomized ster (PROCAM) Study. Eur J Epidem 1992;8(Suppl 1): controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285:1711–8.
31. Kinlay S, Schwartz GG, Olsson AG, et al. Effect of Ator- 45. Burchfiel CM, Laws A, Benfante R, et al. Combined ef- vastatin on Risk of Recurrent Cardiovascular Events After fects of HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and total choles- an Acute Coronary Syndrome Associated With High Sol- terol concentrations on 18-year risk of atherosclerotic uble CD 40 Ligand in the Myocardial Ischemia Reduction disease. Circulation 1995;92:1430–6.
with Aggresive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) Study.
46. Iso H, Naito Y, Sato S, et al. Serum triglycerides and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese men and 32. Rouleau J. Improved outcome after acute coronary syn- women. Am J Epidem 2001;153:490–9.
dromes with an intensive versus standard lipid-lowering 47. Manninen V, Tenkanen L, Koskinen P, et al. Joint ef- regimen: results from the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin fects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in My- cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk ocardial Infarction 22 (PROVE IT-TIMI 22) trial. Am J in the Helsinki Heart Study: implications for treatment.
Med 2005 Dec;118(Suppl 12A): 28–35.
33. Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, et al. Effect of in- 48. Haim M, Benderly M, Brunner D, et al. Elevated serum tensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy triglyceride levels and long-term mortality in patients C H A P T E R 3 1 Impact of Treating Dyslipidemia on Cardiovascular Events
with coronary heart disease: the Bezafibrate Infarction tor inhibitor-1 in HepG2cells. Clin Chim Acta 2007; Registry. Circulation 1999;100:475–82.
49. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D, et al. Gemfibrozil for 62. Westphal S, Borucki K, Taneva E, et al. Extended-release the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in niacin raises adiponectin and leptin. Atherosclerosis men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein choles- terol. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Choles- 63. The Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Clofi- terol Intervention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med brate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA 1975; 50. Robins SJ, Collins D, Wittes JT, et al. for the VA-HIT 64. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year Study Group. Relation of gemfibrozil treatment and lipid mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term levels with major coronary events–VA-HIT: A Random- benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;8:1245–55.
ized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2001;285:1585–91.
65. Brown BG, Brockenbrough A, Zhao X-Q, et al. Very in- 51. Vakkilainen J, Steiner G, Ansquer J-C, et al, on be- tensive lipid therapy with lovastatin, niacin and colestipol half of the DAIS Group. Relationships between low- for prevention of death and myocardial infarction: a 10- density lipoprotein particle size, plasma lipoproteins, year familial atherosclerosis treatment study (FATS) fol- and progression of coronary artery disease. The Diabetes low up. Circulation 1998;98:I–635.
Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS). Circulation 66. Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A et al. : Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the 52. Keech A, Simes J, Barter P, et al. The FIELD study in- prevention of coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med vestigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes 67. Taylor AJ, Sullenberger LE, Lee HJ, et al. Arterial mellitus (the FIELD study); randomised controlled trial.
biology for the investigation of the treatment ef- fects of reducing cholesterol (ARBITER) 2, a double- 53. Wierzbicky AS. Fibrates after the FIELD study: some blind placebocontrolled study of extended-release niacin answers, more questions. Diabetes Vasc Dis Res 2006; on atherosclerosis progression in secondary preven- tion patients treated with statins. Circulation 2004;110: 54. ACCORD Study Group, Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 68. AJ, Lee HJ, Sullenberger LE. The effect of 24 months diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1563–74.
of combination statin and extended-release niacin on 55. Toth PP : High-density lipoprotein as a therapeutic tar- carotid intima-media thickness: ARBITER 3. Curr Med get: clinical evidence and treatment strategies. Am J Car- 69. Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, et al; Cholesterol Treat- 56. Castelli WP. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coro- ment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety nary artery disease—the Framingham Heart Study. Can of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta- analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 ran- 57. Assmann G, Schulte H, Von Eckardstein A, et al. High- domised trials of statins. Lancet 2005 Oct 8;366(9493): density lipoprotein cholesterol as a the PROCAM ex- perience and pathophysiological implications for reverse 70. Jakovljevi´c M, Reiner ˇZ, Miliˇci´c D. Mental disorders, cholesterol transport. Atherosclerosis 1996;124(Suppl 1): treatment response, mortality and serum cholesterol: A new holistic look at old data. Psychiat Danub 2007; 58. Sanyal S, Karas RH, Kuvin JK. Present-day uses of niacin: effects on lipid and non-lipid parameters. Expert Opin.
71. Kotseva K, Wood D, De Backer G. et al. EUROASPIRE Study Group. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in 59. Atac IA, Peksel A, Yanardag R, et al. The effect of com- daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I,II and bined treatment with niacin and chromium (III) chlo- III surveys in eight European countries. Lancet 2009;373: ride on different tissues of hyperlipemic rats. Drug Chem 72. Reiner ˇZ, Mihatov ˇS, Miliˇci´c D, et al, on behalf of the 60. Kuvin JT, Dave DM, Sliney KA et al. Effects of extended- TASPIC-CRO Study Group Investigators. Treatment and release niacin on lipoprotein particle size, distribution, secondary prevention of ischemic coronary events in and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary Croatia (TASPIC-CRO study). Europ J Cardiovasc Pre- artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:743–5.
61. Tavintharan S, Sivakumar M, Lim SC, et al. Niacin af- 73. Bergman Markovi´c B, Kranjˇcevi´c K, et al. Drug Ther- fects cell adhesion molecules and plasminogen activa- apy of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Guidelines versus S E C T I O N I I I Hypercholesterolemia and Early Atherosclerosis
Reality in Primary Health Care Service. Croat Med J to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidemic pa- tients. A position paper by the Residual Risk Reduc- 75. Reiner ˇZ. Should we start with statin treatment in acute tion Initiative (R3I). Diabetes Vasc Dis Res 2008;4: coronary syndrome? ActaMed Croat 2004;58:147–50.
76. Fruchart J-C, Sacks F, Hermans MP, et al. The 77. Reiner ˇZ. Combined therapy in the treatment of dyslipi- Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: A call to action demia. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2010;24:19–28.

Source: http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/mancini/1405182768/references/c31-ref.pdf

Microsoft word - final_responses_to_public_comments_on_lihi_certification.doc

Exelon Power 300 Exelon Way Kennett Square, PA 19348 610-765-5980 Fax June 23, 2008 Mr. Fred Ayer Executive Director Low Impact Hydropower Institute 34 Providence Street Portland, ME 04103 Re: Exelon Responses to Public Comments on the Conowingo Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 405) LIHI Application Dear Mr. Ayer: On January 15, 2008, Exelon Generation Company (Exelon) filed an appli

Microsoft word - pro-life_news_august_6th,_2012.docx

PRO LIFE NEWS (August 6th, 2012) St. Malachy Council 12540 Melinda Gates—All that Money and This is the Best You Can Come Up With? Melinda Gates and her partners, including the British government and the world’s largest abortion providers, have launched a $4 billion campaign to push birth control on poor women in Africa, Asia and Latin America. She claims that the key to reduc

© 2010-2018 Modern Medicine